Stretching & Flexibility presents the plans and instructions for a typical Gradually, the subsequent lessons build on these basic 'functional units of flexibility'. (c) - page 1 of 7 - Get Instant Access to PDF File: d7c3a0 Stretching For Functional Flexibility By Phil Armiger Mpt PDF EBOOK. In order to design an appropriate program of functional flexibility we must first of all Lucy and Gary stretching before engaging in a fun time of jogging.

Stretching For Functional Flexibility Pdf

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Stretching for Functional Flexibility: Medicine & Health Science Books @ Some readers may wish to use Stretching for Functional Flexibility as a referencefor stretches or basic muscle kinesiology. Others might wish to. range of motion needed to perform functional movements well. Static stretching can increase flexibility, but it does a poor job of addressing neurological.

There are more advanced forms of static stretching, such as proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF , which involves both active muscle contractions and passive external forces. Static stretching is better at creating a more intense stretch because it is able to isolate a muscle group better[ citation needed ].

But this intense of a stretch may hinder one's athletic performance because the muscle is being over stretched while held in this position and, once the tension is released, the muscle will tend to tighten up and may actually become weaker than it was previously[ citation needed ]. Also, the longer the duration of static stretching, the more exhausted the muscle becomes. This type of stretching has been shown to have negative results on athletic performance within the categories of power and speed[ citation needed ].

Dynamic stretching, because it is movement-based, may not isolate the muscle group as well or have as intense of a stretch, but it is better at increasing the circulation of blood flow throughout the body, which in turn increases the amount of oxygen able to be used for an athletic performance.

This type of stretching has shown better results on athletic performances of power and speed, when compared to static stretching[ citation needed ]. The acute effects of static stretching on the sprint performance of collegiate men in the and m dash after a dynamic warm-up.

Sep ; 24 9: Effects of static stretching on energy cost and running endurance performance. Varying amounts of acute static stretching and its effect on vertical jump performance. Negative effect of static stretching restored when combined with a sport specific warm-up component.

Nov ; 12 6: The effect of static stretching on phases of sprint performance in elite soccer players. Factors affecting force loss with prolonged stretching. Can J Appl Physiol. Concentric muscle contractions before static stretching minimize, but do not remove, stretch-induced force deficits.

Mar ; 3: Effect of submaximal contraction intensity in contract-relax proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching. Br J Sports Med.

Aug ; 38 4: Markos PD. Ipsilateral and contralateral effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation techniques on hip motion and electromyographic activity. Nov ; 59 Cornelius WL. Stretch evoked EMG activity by isometric coontraction and submaximal concentric contraction.

Athletic Training. Soleus muscle electromyographic activity and ankle dorsiflexion range of motion during four stretching procedures.

Stretching & Pregnancy – Regular PDF

Jan ; 67 1: Neurophysiological reflex mechanisms' lack of contribution to the success of PNF stretches. J Sport Rehabil. The efficacy of two modified proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching techniques in subjects with reduced hamstring muscle length.

Physiother Theory Pract. May ; 26 4: Electromyographic investigation of muscle stretching techniques. Muscle activation during proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF stretching techniques. American journal of physical medicine. Oct ; 66 5: Differential responses to proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation PNF stretch techniques.

Feb ; 22 1: Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching on the plantar flexor muscle-tendon tissue properties. Aug ; 19 4: May ; 16 2: Depression of Hoffmann reflexes following voluntary contraction and implications for proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation therapy. Apr ; 71 4: The effect of static stretch and warm-up exercise on hamstring length over the course of 24 hours. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. Dec ; 33 Acute effects of static stretching on hip flexor and quadriceps flexibility, range of motion and foot speed in kicking a football.

Mar ; 7 1: Acute effects of dynamic stretching, static stretching, and light aerobic activity on muscular performance in women. Sep ; 23 6: A comparison of two warm-ups on joint range of motion. Surface electromyographic assessment of the effect of dynamic activity and dynamic activity with static stretching of the gastrocnemius on vertical jump performance. Dynamic vs. Aug ; 20 3: Effect of static and dynamic stretching on vertical jump performance in collegiate women volleyball players.

Jan ; 24 1: Effects of stretching on upper-body muscular performance. Jul ; 22 4: Yamaguchi T, Ishii K.

Effects of static stretching for 30 seconds and dynamic stretching on leg extension power. Aug ; 19 3: Effects of secondary warm up following stretching. Jan ; 2: Four-week dynamic stretching warm-up intervention elicits longer-term performance benefits. Fletcher IM, Jones B.

The effect of different warm-up stretch protocols on 20 meter sprint performance in trained rugby union players. Nov ; 18 4: Effect of acute static stretching on force, balance, reaction time, and movement time.

Effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch techniques on trained and untrained older adults. Journal of aging and physical activity. Effects of different stretching techniques on the outcomes of isokinetic exercise in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Kaohsiung J Med Sci. Jun ; 25 6: Effect of hamstring stretching on hamstring muscle performance.

Sep ; 20 3: Improvement of muscle flexibility. A comparison between two techniques.

1. Introduction

Jul-Aug ; 13 4: Tanigawa MC. Comparison of the hold-relax procedure and passive mobilization on increasing muscle length. Jul ; 52 7: Flexibility training: Jun ; 63 6: The effects of cold application and modified PNF stretching techniques on hip joint flexibility in college males. Res Q Exerc Sport. Sep ; 63 3: Impact of prior exercise on hamstring flexibility: Aug ; 17 3: A randomized controlled trial of hamstring stretching: Active, passive and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretching are comparable in improving the knee flexion range in people with total knee replacement: Clin Rehabil.

Oct ; 24 Yuktasir B, Kaya F. Investigation into the long-term effects of static and PNF stretching exercises on range of motion and jump performance. J Bodyw Mov Ther. Jan ; 13 1: Effect of pelvic position and stretching method on hamstring muscle flexibility.

Acute changes in hamstring flexibility: PNF versus static stretch in senior athletes. Physical Therapy in Sport. Ford P, McChesney J.

Stretching for Functional Flexibility.

Duration of maintained hamstring ROM following termination of three stretching protocols. Feb ; 16 1: The effects of two stretching procedures on hip range of motion and gait economy.

The effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation and static stretch training on running mechanics. Jul ; 23 4: J Athl Train.

Jun ; 40 2: Hamstring flexibility in young women following passive stretch and muscle energy technique. J Back Musculoskelet Rehabil. The effect of duration of stretching of the hamstring muscle group for increasing range of motion in people aged 65 years or older. May ; 81 5: Rider RA, Daly J. Effects of flexibility training on enhancing spinal mobility in older women. Jun ; 31 2: Transient effects of stretching exercises on gait parameters of elderly women. Man Ther. Tendons are not affected by training; ligaments, however adapt to As mentioned earlier, flexibility can be shaped using stretching, since they do not return to their original form two processes: stretching and flexibilising by applying a as elastic components do.

Therefore, a ligament that is variety of techniques.

Stretching can be applied as elon- constantly injured may become loose and not perform gation, suspension or release. Elongation aims at de- its functional role.

The suspension technique uses static, dynamic, ballistic and controlled. Static flexibility the action of gravity to stretch ligaments and muscles. Release consists of balanc- articular arc has been reached. This type of flexibility is ing limbs or muscles, resulting in muscle relaxation and most frequently used to evaluate flexibility.

It is charac- muscle spindle deactivation. Ballistic flexibility forces the limb facilitation PNF [4]. The active method uses dynamic into an extended range of motion when the muscle is not ballistic speed exercises, reaching maximum range of relaxed enough to enter it. It involves fast bouncing move- motion, that activates the muscle spindle and provokes a ments and is widely used by ballerinas and gymnasts.

This method emphasises muscle elas- Stretching vs. The pas- to improve joint mobility and increasingly extend mus- sive method or static flexibilising aims at slowly, stead- cle fibres within physiologically feasible levels. How- ily reaching the largest range of joint motion and main- ever, if the objective is to maintain flexibility, the most taining the position for 10 — 15 s, repeating the routine 3 widely indicated methodology uses muscle stretching to 6 times with a decontracting interval [6,22,26].

This with normal joint range of motion. This is a sub-maximal technique emphasises joint mobility and activates the exercise aimed at maintaining flexibility obtained and Golgi tendon organ, resulting in muscle relaxation, that performing normal range of motion with the least amount does not require excessive muscle contractions immedi- of physical restriction possible [5].

On the other hand, if ately after its application and risk compromising joint the goal is an enhanced flexibility greater joint range of components. This is achieved on the muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ and its by flexibilising exercises [6].

Among the Since stretching involves low intensity demands on most commonly used techniques are Scientific Stretch- flexibility components, it does not activate propriocep- ing for Sports-3S processes — hold-relax, contract-relax- tion mechanisms.

However, flexibilising constantly ex- antagonist and the slow-reversal one. In compensation, stretching almost totally deforms plastic components. Quick movements stimu- Concluding Remarks late muscle spindle, triggering the myotatic reflex and calling for muscle contraction.

Slow and gradual muscle This review aimed at emphasising the complexity flexibilising activates the Golgi tendon organ, leading to and multifaceted nature of flexibility. Further studies are muscle relaxation. Dynamic stretching, therefore, acts needed on this physical feature, so important for all those primarily on muscles, whereas static stretching has a engaged in motor activities, i.

The steadily increasing sedentariness contrib- Because of proprioceptor mechanisms, stretching and utes to the inactivity-related diseases apart from decreas- flexibilising must be applied according to the desired ing the joint ranges of motion.

If a response is required immediately after It is reassuring for professionals involved in flexibil- flexibility exercises, as in athletic competitions, stretch- ity training to know that young athletes will not be ad- ing should be used only to prepare joint and muscle plas- versely affected, at least in the spine, as demonstrated tic components for the activity to be performed immedi- by Raty et al.

Flexibility has to be included in all ately. When the aim is to enhance flexibility, i. Flexibility 43 References Nelson R. Bandy An update on flexibility.


Strength Condit. Pollock M. Gaesser, J. Butcher, J. Despres, R. Dishman, 1.

Allen D. Zhang, N. Whitehead Stretch-induced B. Franklin, C. Garber ACSM Position Stand: The re- membrane damage in muscle: comparison of wild-type and commended quantity and quality of exercise for developing mdx mice. Muscle Biophys. Alter M. Sports Exerc. Human Kinetics, Champaign IL. Videman, S. Sarna Lumbar 3. Barbanti V. Bradley P.

Olsen, M. Portas The effect of static, Rubini E. Costa, P. Gomes The effects of ballistic, and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation stretch- stretching on strength performance. Sports Med. Strengt Condit. Shrier I. A systematic and critical review of the literature. Sport 5. Novaes, E. Dantas, S. Silva E.Sarna Lumbar 3. May ; 15 2: Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

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All Nursing Pharm Duration of maintained hamstring ROM following termination of three stretching protocols.

On the other hand, if ately after its application and risk compromising joint the goal is an enhanced flexibility greater joint range of components. People with tight shoulders are often in a constant hunch.

Aug ; 19 3: All Nursing Theory.

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