DE RE METALLICA PDF

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DE RE METALLICA. TRANSLATED FROM THE FIRST LATIN EDITION OF with. Biographical Introduction, Annotations and Appendices upon. DE RE METALLICA. TRANSLATED FROM THE FIRST LATIN EDITION OF •ss6 with. Biographical Introduction, Annotations and Appendices upon. De Re Metallica, Translated from the First Latin Edition of by Georg Agricola . No cover available. Download; Bibrec.


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This New Edition of DE RE METALLICA is a complete and unchanged reprint of the translation published by The Mining Magazine, London, in PDF | De Re Metallica us one of the most important contributions to the development of science and technology. Although this 16th century. De_Re_Metallica_Libri_XII_=threadergrenacmu.ml ( × pixels, file size: MB, MIME type: application/pdf, pages).

There can be no doubt, however, that his views are greatly coloured by his deep classical learning. He was in fine to a certain distance a follower of Aristotle, Theophrastus, Strato, and other leaders of the Peripatetic school. For that matter, except for the muddy current which the alchemists had introduced into this already troubled stream, the whole thought of the learned world still flowed from the Greeks. Had he not, however, radically departed from the teachings of the Peripatetic school, his work would have been no contribution to the development of science.

Certain of their teachings he repudiated with great vigour, and his laboured and detailed arguments in their refutation form the first battle in science over the results of observation versus inductive speculation.

To use his own words: "Those things which we see with our eyes and understand by means of our senses are more clearly to be demonstrated than if learned by means of reasoning. In giving an appreciation of Agricola' s views here and throughout the footnotes, we do not wish to convey to the reader that he was in all things free from error and from the spirit of his times, or that his theories, constructed long before the atomic theory, are of the clearcut order which that basic hypothesis has rendered possible to later scientific speculation in these branches.

His statements are sometimes much confused, but we reiterate that 23 1 their clarity is as crystal to mud in comparison with those of his predecessors and of most of his successors for over two hundred years.

As an indication of his grasp of some of the wider aspects of geological phenomena we reproduce, in Appendix A, a passage from De Ortu et Causs, which we believe to be the first adequate declaration of the part played by erosion in mountain sculpture. But of all of Agricola' s theoretical views those are of the greatest interest which relate to the origin of ore deposits, for in these matters he had the greatest opportunities of observation and the most experience.

We have on page reproduced and discussed his theory at considerable length, but we may repeat here, that in his propositions as to the circulation of ground waters, that ore channels are a subsequent creation to the contained rocks, and that they were filled by deposition from circulating solutions, he enunciated the founda tions of our modern theory, and in so doing took a step in advance greater than that of any single subsequent authority.

In his contention that ore channels were created by erosion of subterranean waters he was wrong, except for special cases, and it was not until two centuries later that a further step in advance was taken by the recognition by Van Oppel of the part played by fissuring in these phenomena. Nor was it until about the same time that the filling of ore channels in the main by deposition from solutions was generally accepted. While Werner, two hundred and fifty years after Agricola, is generally revered as the inspirer of the modern theory by those whose reading has taken them no farther back, we have no hesitation in asserting that of the propositions of each author, Agricola' s were very much more nearly in accord with modern views.

Moreover, the main result of the new ideas brought forward by Werner was to stop the march of progress for half a century, instead of speeding it forward as did those of Agricola. In mineralogy Agricola made the first attempt at systematic treatment of the subject. His system could not be otherwise than wrongly based, as he could scarcely see forward two or three centuries to the atomic theory and our vast fund of chemical knowledge. He is the first to assert that bismuth and antimony are true primary metals; and to some sixty actual mineral species described previous to his time he added some twenty more, and laments that there are scores unnamed.

As to Agricola' s contribution to the sciences of mining and metal lurgy, De Re Metallca speaks for itself. While he describes, for the first 24 1 time, scores of methods and processes, no one would contend that they were discoveries or inventions of his own.

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They represent the accumulation of generations of experience and knowledge; but by him they were, for the first time, to receive detailed and intelligent exposition. Until Schlter' s work nearly two centuries later, it was not excelled.

There is no measure by which we may gauge the value of such a work to the men who followed in this profession during centuries, nor the benefits enjoyed by humanity through them.

Of wider importance than the details of his achievements in the mere confines of the particular science to which he applied himself, is the fact that he was the first to found any of the natural sciences upon research and observation, as opposed to previous fruitless speculation.

The wider interest of the members of the medical profession in the development of their science than that of geologists in theirs, has led to the aggrandizement of Paracelsus, a contem porary of Agricola, as the first in deductive science.

Yet no comparative study of the unparalleled egotistical ravings of this halfgenius, halfalchemist, with the modest sober logic and real research and observation of Agricola, can leave a moment' s doubt as to the incomparably greater position which should be attributed to the latter as the pioneer in building the foundation of science by deduction from observed phenomena.

Science is the base upon which is reared the civilization of today, and while we give daily credit to all those who toil in the superstructure, let none forget those men who laid its first foundation stones.

One of the greatest of these was Georgius Agricola. He says: "The scientific world will be still more indebted to Agricola when he brings to light the books De Re Metallica and other matters which he has on hand. That the appearance of this work was eagerly anticipated is evidenced by a letter from George Fabricius to Valentine Hertel: 17 "With great excitement the books De Re Metallca are being awaited.

If he treats the material at hand with his usual zeal, he will win for himself glory such as no one in any of the fields of literature has attained for the last thousand years.

The work was apparently finished in , for the dedication to the Dukes Maurice and August of Saxony is dated in December of that year. The eulogistic poem by his friend, George Fabricius, is dated in The publication was apparently long delayed by the preparation of the woodcuts; and, according to Mathesius, 18 many sketches for them were prepared by Basilius Wefring.

In the preface of De Re Metallca, Agricola does not mention who prepared the sketches, but does say: "I have hired illustrators to delineate their forms, lest descriptions which are conveyed by words should either not be understood by men of our own times, or should cause difficulty to posterity.

An interesting letter 20 from the Elector Augustus to Agricola, dated January 18, , reads: "Most learned, dear and faithful subject, whereas you have sent to the Press a Latin book of which the title is said to be De Rebus Metallcis, which has been praised to us and we should like to know the contents, it is our gracious command that you should get the book translated when you have the opportunity into German, and not let it be copied more than once or be printed, but keep it by you and send us a copy.

If you should need a writer for this purpose, we will provide one. Thus you will fulfil our gracious behest. It is a sad commentary on his countrymen that no correct German translation exists. The title page of the first edition is reproduced later on, and the full titles of other editions are given in the Appendix, together with the author' s other works.

De Re Metallca, Froben.. Basel Folio In addition to these, Leupold, 21 Schmid, 22 and others mention an octavo edition, without illustrations, Schweinfurt, We have not been able to find a copy of this edition, and are not certain of its existence. The same catalogues also mention an octavo edition of De Re Metallica, Wittenberg, or , with notes by Joanne Sigfrido; but we believe this to be a confusion with Agricola' s subsidiary works, which were published at this time and place, with such notes.

Vom Bergkwerck, Froben, Folio, Bergwerck Buch, Ludwig Knig, Basel, folio, There are other editions than these, mentioned by bibliographers, but we have been unable to confirm them in any library. The most reliable of such bibliographies, that of John Ferguson, 23 gives in addition to the above; Bergwerkbuch, Basel, , folio, and Schweinfurt, , octavo. L' Arte de Metalli, Froben, Basel, folio, However, a portion of the accounts of the firm of Froben were published in 24 , and therein is an entry under March, , of a sum to one Leodigaris Grymaldo for some other work, and also for "correction of Agricola' s De Re Metallca in French.

There is also mention 25 that a manuscript of De Re Metallica in Spanish was 31 1 seen in the library of the town of Bejar. An interesting note appears in the glossary given by Sir John Pettus in his translation of Lazarus Erckern' s work on assaying. He says 26 "but I cannot enlarge my observations upon any more words, because the printer calls for what I did write of a metallick dictionary, after I first proposed the printing of Erckern, but intending within the compass of a year to publish Georgius Agricola, De Re Metallica being fully translated in English, and also to add a dictionary to it, I shall reserve my remaining essays if what I have done hitherto be approved till then, and so I proceed in the dictionary.

Non hic uana tenet suspensam fabula mentem: Sed precium, utilitas multa, legentis erit. Quidquid terra sinu, gremio recondiditimo, Omne tibi multis eruit ante libris: Siue fluens superas ultro nitatur in oras, Inueniat facilem seu magis arte uiam. Perpetui proprns manant de fontibus amnes, Est grauis Albune sponte Mephitis odor.

Astrophysics > Astrophysics of Galaxies

Lethales sunt sponte scrobes Dicarchidis or, Et micat media conditus ignis humo. Plana Nariscorum cm tellus arsitin agro, Ter curua nondum falce resecta Ceres. Nec dedit hoc damnum pastor, riec Iuppiterigne: Vulcani per seruperat ira solum. Hcabstrusa cauis, imo incognita fundo, Cognita natura spe fuere duce. Arte hominum, in lucem ueniunt quoque multa, manu Terr multiplices effodiuntur opes.

De re metallica

Lydia sicnitrum profert, Islandia sulfur, Acmod Tyrrhenus mittit alumen ager. Succina, qu trifi do subit quor Vistula cornu, Piscantur Codano corpora serua sinu. Quid memorem regum preciosa insignia gemmas, Marmora excelsis structa sub astra iugis? Nil lapides, nil saxa moror: sunt pulchra metalia, Crfetuis opibus clara, Myda tuis, Qu acer Macedo terra Creneide fodit, Nomine permutans nomina prisca suo.

Hic auri in uenis locupletibus aura refulget, Non alio messis carior ulla loco. Auricomum extulerit felix Campania ramum, Nec fructu nobis desiciente cadit. Eruit argenti solidas hoc tempore massas Fossor, dc proprijs arma miles agris.

Ignotum Graijs est Hesperijs metallum, Quod Bisemutum lingua paterna uocat.

De Re Metallica – Agricola, Hoover

Candidius nigro, sed plumbo nigrius albo, Nostra quoque hoc uena diuite fundit humus. Funditur in tormenta, corus cum imitantia fulmen, s, in hostiles ferrea massa domos. Scribuntur plumbo libri: quis credidit ant Qum mirandam artem Teutonis ora dedit?

Nec tamen hoc alijs, aut illa petuntur ab oris, Eruta Germano cuncta metalla solo. Qu si mente prius legisti candidus qua: Da reliquis quoque nunc tempora pauca libris. Vtilitas sequitur cultorem: crede, uoluptas Non iucunda minor, rara legentis, erit.

Iudicio prius ne quis mal damnet iniquo, Qu sunt auctoris munera mira Dei: 35 1 Eripit ipse suis primm tela hostibus, in Mittentis torquet spicula rapta caput. Fertur equo latro, uehitur pirata triremi: Ergo necandus equus, nec fabricanda ratis? Visceribus terr lateant abstrusa metalla, Vti opibus nescit qud mala turba suis? Quisquis es, aut doctis pareto monentbus, aut te Inter habere bonos ne fateare locum. Se non in prrupta metallicus abijcit audax, Vt quondam immisso Curtius acer equo: Sed prius ediscit, qu sunt noscenda perito, Quod facit, multa doctus ab arte facit.

Vt gubernator seruat cum sidere uentos: Sic minim dubijs utitur ille notis. Iasides nauim, currus regit arte Metiscus: Fossor opus peragit nec minus arte suum. Indagat uen spacium, numerum, modum, Siue obliqua suum, rectae tendatiter. En terr intentus, quid uincula linea tendit? Fungitur officio iam Ptoleme tuo. Vt su inuenit mensuram iura uen, In uarios operas diuidit ind e uiros. Iam aggressus opus, uiden' ut mouet omne quod obstat, Assidua ut uersat strenuus arma manu? Ne tibi surdescant ferri tinnitibus aures, Ad grauiora ideo conspicienda ueni.

Instruit ecce suis nunc artibus ille minores: Sedulitas nulli non operosa loco. Metiri docet hic uen spacium modum, Vt regat positis sinibus arua lapis, Ne quis transmisso uiolentus limite pergens, Non sibi concessas, in sua uertat, opes. Hic docet instrumenta, quibus Piutonia regna Tutus adit, saxi permeat atque uias. Quanta uides solidas expugnet machina terras: Machina non ullo tempore uisa prius.

Cede nouis, nulla non inclyta laude uetustas, Posteritas meritis est quoque grata tuis. Tum quia Germano sunt hc inuenta sub axe, Si quis es, inuidi contrahe uela tu. Ausonis ora tumct bellis, terra Attica cultu, Germanum insractus tollit ad astra labor. Nec tamen ingenio solet infeliciter uti, 37 1 Mite gert PhSbi, seu graue Martis opus. Tempus adest, structis uenarum montibus, igne Explorare, usum quem sibi uena ferat.

Non labor ingenio caret hic, non copia fructu, Est adaperta bon prima fenestra spei.

Ergo instat porr grauiores ferre labores, Intentas operi nec remouere manus. Vrere siue locus poscat, seu tundere uenas, Siue lauare lacu prter euntis aqu.

Seu flammis iterum modicis torrere necesse est, Excoquere aut fastis ignibus omne malum, Cm fluit s riuis, auri argenti metallum, Spes animo fossor uix capit ipse suas. Argentum cupidus fuluo secernit ab auro, Et plumbi lentam demit utrique moram. Separat argentum, lucri studiosus, ab re, Seruatis, linquens deteriora, bonis. Postremus labor est, concretos disceresuccos, Quos fert innumeris Teutona terra locis. Quo sal, quo nitrum, quo pacto fiat alumen, Vsibus artisicis cm parat illa manus: Necnon chalcantum, sulfur, fluidumque bitumen, Massa quo uitri lenta dolanda modo.

Suscipit hc hominum mirandos cura labores, Pauperiem usqueadeo ferre famem graue est, Tantus amor uictum paruis extundere natis, Et patri ciuem non dare uelle malum. Nec manet in terr fossoris mersa latebris Mens, sed fert domino uota preces Deo. Munific expectat, spe plenus, munera dextr, Extollens animum ltus ad astra suum. Hoc quoque laudati quondam fecere Philippi, Qui uirtutis habent cum pietate decus. Huc oculos, huc flecte animum, suauissime Lector, Auctorem pia noscito mente Deum.

Ille suum extollit patri cum nomine nomen, Et uir in ore frequens posteritatis erit. Cuncta cadunt letho, studij monumenta uigebunt, 39 1 Purpurei doneclumina solis erunt. Misen M. For completeness' sake we reproduce in the original Latin the laudation of Agricola by his friend, Georgius Fabricius, a leading scholar of his time. It has but little intrinsic value for it is not poetry of a very high order, and to make it acceptable English would require certain improvements, for which only poets have license.

A "free" translation of the last few lines indicates its complimentary character: "He doth raise his country' s fame with his own And in the mouths of nations yet unborn His praises shall be sung; Death comes to all But great achievements raise a monument Which shall endure until the sun grows cold.

He then describes the works of ancient and contemporary writers on mining and metallurgy, the chief ancient source being Pliny the Elder. Agricola describes several books contemporary to him, the chief being a booklet by Calbus of Freiberg in German. The works of alchemists are then described. Agricola does not reject the idea of alchemy, but notes that alchemical writings are obscure and that we do not read of any of the masters who became rich. He then describes fraudulent alchemists, who deserve the death penalty.

Agricola completes his introduction by explaining that, since no other author has described the art of metals completely, he has written this work, setting forth his scheme for twelve books.

Finally, he again directly addresses his audience of German princes, explaining the wealth that can be gained from this art. Book I: Arguments for and against this art[ edit ] This book consists of the arguments used against the art and Agricola's counter arguments.

He explains that mining and prospecting are not just a matter of luck and hard work; there is specialized knowledge that must be learned. A miner should have knowledge of philosophy , medicine , astronomy , surveying , arithmetic , architecture , drawing and law , though few are masters of the whole craft and most are specialists. This section is full of classical references and shows Agricola's classical education to its fullest.

The arguments range from philosophical objections to gold and silver as being intrinsically worthless, to the danger of mining to its workers and its destruction of the areas in which it is carried out.

He argues that without metals, no other activity such as architecture or agriculture are possible. The dangers to miners are dismissed, noting that most deaths and injuries are caused by carelessness, and other occupations are hazardous too.

Clearing forests for timber is advantageous as the land can be farmed. Mines tend to be in mountains and gloomy valleys with little economic value. The loss of food from the forests destroyed can be replaced by download from profits, and metals have been placed underground by God and man is right to extract and use them. Finally, Agricola argues that mining is an honorable and profitable occupation. Book II: The miner and a discourse on the finding of veins[ edit ] This book describes the miner and the finding of veins.

Agricola assumes that his audience is the mine owner, or an investor in mines. He advises owners to live at the mine and to appoint good deputies. It is recommended to download shares in mines that have not started to produce as well as existing mines to balance the risks. The next section of this book recommends areas where miners should search. These are generally mountains with wood available for fuel and a good supply of water.

A navigable river can be used to bring fuel, but only gold or gemstones can be mined if no fuel is available.

The roads must be good and the area healthy. Agricola describes searching streams for metals and gems that have been washed from the veins.

He also suggests looking for exposed veins and also describes the effects of metals on the overlying vegetation. He recommends trenching to investigate veins beneath the surface. He then describes dowsing with a forked twig although he rejects the method himself.

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The passage is the first written description of how dowsing is done. Finally he comments on the practice of naming veins or shafts.

Book III: Veins and stringers and seams in the rocks[ edit ] This book is a description of the various types of veins that can be found.

There are 30 illustrations of different forms of these veins, forming the majority of Book III. Agricola also describes a compass to determine the direction of veins and mentions that some writers claim that veins lying in certain directions are richer, although he provides counter-examples. He also mentions the theory that the sun draws the metals in veins to the surface, although he himself doubts this.

Finally he explains that gold is not generated in the beds of streams and rivers and east-west streams are not more productive than others inherently.

Gold occurs in streams because it is torn from veins by the water. Book IV: Delimiting veins and the functions of mining officials[ edit ] This book describes how an official, the Bergmeister , is in charge of mining. He marks out the land into areas called meers when a vein is discovered.

The rest of the book covers the laws of mining. There is a section on how the mine can be divided into shares. The roles of various other officials in regulating mines and taxing the production are stated. The shifts of the miners are fixed.

The chief trades in the mine are listed and are regulated by both the Bergmeister and their foremen. Book V: The digging of ore and the surveyor's art[ edit ] This book covers underground mining and surveying. When a vein below ground is to be exploited a shaft is begun and a wooden shed with a windlass is placed above it.

The tunnel dug at the bottom follows the vein and is just big enough for a man. This section is full of classical references and shows Agricola's classical education to its fullest. The arguments range from philosophical objections to gold and silver as being intrinsically worthless, to the danger of mining to its workers and its destruction of the areas in which it is carried out. He argues that without metals, no other activity such as architecture or agriculture are possible.

The dangers to miners are dismissed, noting that most deaths and injuries are caused by carelessness, and other occupations are hazardous too. Clearing forests for timber is advantageous as the land can be farmed. Mines tend to be in mountains and gloomy valleys with little economic value. The loss of food from the forests destroyed can be replaced by download from profits, and metals have been placed underground by God and man is right to extract and use them. Finally, Agricola argues that mining is an honorable and profitable occupation.

This book describes the miner and the finding of veins. Agricola assumes that his audience is the mine owner, or an investor in mines. He advises owners to live at the mine and to appoint good deputies. It is recommended to download shares in mines that have not started to produce as well as existing mines to balance the risks. The next section of this book recommends areas where miners should search.

These are generally mountains with wood available for fuel and a good supply of water. A navigable river can be used to bring fuel, but only gold or gemstones can be mined if no fuel is available. The roads must be good and the area healthy. Agricola describes searching streams for metals and gems that have been washed from the veins. He also suggests looking for exposed veins and also describes the effects of metals on the overlying vegetation.

He recommends trenching to investigate veins beneath the surface. He then describes dowsing with a forked twig although he rejects the method himself.

Finally he comments on the practice of naming veins or shafts. This book is a description of the various types of veins that can be found.

There are 30 illustrations of different forms of these veins, forming the majority of Book III. Agricola also describes a compass to determine the direction of veins and mentions that some writers claim that veins lying in certain directions are richer, although he provides counter-examples.

He also mentions the theory that the sun draws the metals in veins to the surface, although he himself doubts this.

Finally he explains that gold is not generated in the beds of streams and rivers and east-west streams are not more productive than others inherently. Gold occurs in streams because it is torn from veins by the water.

This book describes how an official, the Bergmeister , is in charge of mining. He marks out the land into areas called meers when a vein is discovered. The rest of the book covers the laws of mining. There is a section on how the mine can be divided into shares. The roles of various other officials in regulating mines and taxing the production are stated.

The shifts of the miners are fixed. The chief trades in the mine are listed and are regulated by both the Bergmeister and their foremen. This book covers underground mining and surveying.

When a vein below ground is to be exploited a shaft is begun and a wooden shed with a windlass is placed above it. The tunnel dug at the bottom follows the vein and is just big enough for a man. The entire vein should be removed. Sometimes the tunnel eventually connects with a tunnel mouth in a hill side. Stringers and cross veins should be explored with cross tunnels or shafts when they occur.

Agricola next describes that gold, silver, copper and mercury can be found as native metals, the others very rarely. Gold and silver ores are described in detail. Agricola then states that it is rarely worthwhile digging for other metals unless the ores are rich. Gems are found in some mines, but rarely have their own veins, lodestone is found in iron mines and emery in silver mines.

Various minerals and colours of earths can be used to give indications of the presence of metal ores. The actual mineworking varies with the hardness of the rock, the softest is worked with a pick and requires shoring with wood, the hardest is usually broken with fire.

Iron wedges, hammers and crowbars are used to break other rocks. Noxious gases and the ingress of water are described.

Methods for lining tunnels and shafts with timber are described. The book concludes with a long treatise on surveying, showing the instruments required and techniques for determining the course of veins and tunnels. Surveyors allow veins to be followed, but also prevent mines removing ore from other claims and stop mine workings from breaking into other workings.

This book is extensively illustrated and describes the tools and machinery associated with mining. Handtools and different sorts of buckets, wheelbarrows and trucks on wooded plankways are described. Packs for horses and sledges are used to carry loads above ground. Agricola then provides details of various kinds of machines for lifting weights.

Some of these are man-powered and some powered by up to four horses or by waterwheels. Horizontal drive shafts along tunnels allow lifting in shafts not directly connected to the surface. If this is not possible treadmills will be installed underground.Finally, he again directly addresses his audience of German princes, explaining the wealth that can be gained from this art.

Hic docet instrumenta, quibus Piutonia regna Tutus adit, saxi permeat atque uias. Agricola also describes a compass to determine the direction of veins and mentions that some writers claim that veins lying in certain directions are richer, although he provides counter-examples.

De re metallica. Instead, as a scientist he tried to form a theory on the origin of those ore layers. The shifts of the miners are fixed.

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