UNDERSTANDING ARCHITECTURE PDF

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[PDF] Download Understanding Architecture Its Elements History and Meaning COMPLETE Books. Book Details Author: Leland M. Roth,Amanda C. Roth Clark Pages: Binding: Paperback Brand: Westview Press ISBN: Description This widely acclaimed, beautifully illustrated. PDF | further development, the maintenance and the re-engineering of this system. Unfortunately, architecture is hardly documented in such systems. The only. Understanding architecture: its elements, history, and meaning. byRoth, Leland M Borrow this book to access EPUB and PDF files.


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Free PDF Understanding Architecture: Its Elements, History, and Meaning by Leland M. Roth PDF Free Download as PDF. Understanding architecture by Leland M. Roth, , Icon Editions edition, in English - 1st ed. Understanding Architecture Architecture speaks volumes about the culture from which it springs, and over the number of years it presents the humans desire to.

There it begins.

Understanding Architecture

While the notion that structural and aesthetic considerations should be entirely subject to functionality was met with both popularity and skepticism, it had the effect of introducing the concept of "function" in place of Vitruvius ' "utility". Nunzia Rondanini stated, "Through its aesthetic dimension architecture goes beyond the functional aspects that it has in common with other human sciences. Through its own particular way of expressing values , architecture can stimulate and influence social life without presuming that, in and of itself, it will promote social development.

In the late 20th century a new concept was added to those included in the compass of both structure and function, the consideration of sustainability , hence sustainable architecture. To satisfy the contemporary ethos a building should be constructed in a manner which is environmentally friendly in terms of the production of its materials, its impact upon the natural and built environment of its surrounding area and the demands that it makes upon non-sustainable power sources for heating, cooling, water and waste management and lighting.

Philosophy of architecture Wittgenstein House Philosophy of Architecture is a branch of philosophy of art , dealing with aesthetic value of architecture, its semantics and relations with development of culture. Plato to Michel Foucault , Gilles Deleuze , Robert Venturi as well as many other philosophers and theoreticians, distinguish architecture 'technion' from building 'demiorgos' , attributing the former to mental traits, and the latter to the divine or natural.

Built by renowned Austrian philosopher Ludwig Wittgenstein , the house has been the subject of extensive research about the relationship between its stylistic features, Wittgenstein's personality, and his philosophy. Architectural phenomenology focuses on human experience, background, intention and historical reflection, interpretation as well as poetic and ethical considerations with authors such as Gaston Bachelard [21].

As a result the surroundings to buildings may alter radically and buildings may change their use or become redundant. We need to be aware of these transformations if we are to understand the physical context of buildings and we discuss some of these issues.

Some environments are more attractive than others and those that we enjoy are distinctive and special. Both old and new developments may be inspiring and enjoyable but sometimes there may be a tension between the two. In any historical subject, the facts, however they are determined, are just the starting point. In Chapter 10 we indicate where to look for information, and we look at the web and at the quality of the architectural information available on it.

We look at the differences between primary and secondary sources, the range of sources that are available, such as guide books, journals, title deeds, wills or company records, and the type of information that they will give us.

We hope to encourage readers to look at architecture with new critical eyes and to enable them to participate in decisions affecting their own environment. Our aim is to raise questions and then indicate which paths might lead to possible answers. This book is about the subject of architecture, building and the built environment in all its forms: a vast subject that encompasses many different disciplines. It is the complexity and the multiplicity of roles performed by architecture that make it such a challenge to study, for it is at the same time an art, a technology, an industry and an investment.

It provides the physical framework for our lives, so it has a public role, but it is also where we live, work and play, so it has a private role.

It has material form, but it also represents our ideals and aspirations.

Housing, buildings for recreation, government buildings, religious buildings and town planning illustrate not only how we live, but also our aspirations for the future. Architecture is as much concerned with beauty, style and aesthetics as it is with technology, economics and politics.

It is the product of architects, engineers, builders and entrepreneurs and it is used by ordinary people whose voices have until recently rarely been heard. It is also concerned with the reasons for studying architecture and the question of individual taste. That is to say it is concerned with the aesthetic arts, as opposed to the useful or industrial arts such as engineering. It is a debate that still continues. This dualism between art on the one hand and utility or function on the other continues, but it is unsatisfactory for it does not address the complex interlinking of the two.

Figure 2. Many would agree that large, expensive and prestigious buildings representing powerful sectors of society — such as palaces, temples, cathedrals and castles, known as polite architecture — should be included, but would question the inclusion of cottages, garages or railway stations. We may enjoy the moss-covered thatched roofs and mellow walls of country cottages or admire the skill and craftwork of pole and dhaka clay homesteads in Africa; however because they are modest structures that professional architects did not design, some would argue that they are not architecture.

Such buildings may be visually pleasing and intricately crafted, but until recently they were not deemed worth studying as architecture. Local builders or the occupants made them, to satisfy practical, cultural, and community needs and values. Nevertheless, it has generally been studied separately from polite or monumental architecture and has been seen as a branch of anthropology, construction history or social history. In places such as the Indian sub-continent these comprise some 95 per cent of the housing stock.

It represented a new type of urban form that needed to be understood if techniques for handling it were to evolve. Because architecture is such a vast subject there have been many attempts to limit it, or to break it down into more manageable areas.

Grouping buildings according to their use, such as military, domestic, recreational, industrial or transport, is another way of subdividing the subject, as is grouping them according to the methods or materials of construction. In the past some writers argued that the monks as builders and as patrons designed these cathedrals.

Others stressed the role of the master masons and emphasised the mechanics of construction, particularly of large and complicated churches, so that the architect was seen in effect as a practising engineer. Another interpretation was to see the creation of cathedrals as the achievement of collectives of craftsmen contributing their individual skills and working cooperatively.

Today historians recognise the important role of the higher clergy as patrons who, in consultation with the architects, determined the form of the cathedrals. Some architects may be little more than technicians or draughtspeople, while at the other end of the scale they may act as entrepreneurs and developers, particularly in the United States.

Architects in this role tend to be more like business managers. Until quite recently — within the last years — the role of the architect included surveying and building as well as military and civil engineering.

In China there are records of named architects dating from the tenth century and the earliest surviving manual by Li Jie, Yingzao Fashi State Building Standards , was published in Li Jie worked as Superintendent for State Buildings in the Ministry of Works from and was a distinguished practising builder as well as a writer.

In the nineteenth century the work of many architectural practices included surveying, providing bills of quantities, arranging leases and assessing rents, as well as designing. With 14 Architecture and building the decline of the building trades in the nineteenth century and the rise of the general building contractor, such as Cubitts in London, architects took on the important role of supervising works on site and communicating to builders the full details of the building work required.

These architects could be self-employed or salaried and working for large architectural practices, local authorities or commercial and industrial companies. Howard M. Of these only about forty were involved in building the factories that we associate with the early stages of the industrial revolution.

It was the engineers who designed the machinery and it was mainly they who designed the structures to house them. The reasons for these developments relate to the changing practice of building in the mid-eighteenth century, the increasing division of labour, transformations in building technology and the emergence of new types of building.

The development of the architectural profession in the UK is marked by the foundation of the Institute of British Architects, launched by T.

Donaldson in , and the setting up of chairs of architecture in the universities. Women have nevertheless practised architecture throughout history although their contribution has been largely unrecognised.

Architecture and building 15 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 Heroic architects and heroic architecture With the professionalisation of architecture came an increased emphasis on the importance of the individual architect, an emphasis that continues today. It is in the studio that architectural students learn how to shape the spaces we live in and form our environment, and it is in the studio that the practice of architecture as a solitary creative activity is inculcated.

Great architects are seen as heroes who create sculptural objects alone, often in the face of incomprehension and opposition. Alongside this focus on architects as heroes comes the disparagement from those who do not understand them, the clients, the town planners and the public. Teamwork and collaboration between architects and other disciplines, or between architect and client, are rarely emphasised and a wide range of professional architectural publications reinforces this attitude.

The result of this privileging tendency is to emphasise originality and novelty, and this is also evident in current practice and in histories of architecture. It creates a predominantly aesthetic emphasis, with much less stress on the teams of people involved in the production of buildings, or the appreciation of the needs of prospective users. The ideology of individualism and art that surrounds architecture is often in sharp contrast to the realities of practice, in which architects or builders work as part of a team.

In traditional communities several family members — or local builders in liaison with community leaders — cooperate in designing and building structures. The actual designer was not necessarily Norman Foster himself, but one of the partners, backed by a team of draughtspeople and designers.

It is necessary to be familiar with the roles of all the individuals and institutions involved in order to understand the factors that affect the built environment.

If architecture is seen solely as the province of architects, whether heroic or not, then people may misunderstand their role in creating the built environment and may blame them if they do not like the results.

The nature of patronage and the relationship of architects to users are also important in understanding architecture. In vernacular architecture the men and women who design and build their own communities combine the roles of patron, designer and builder. In polite architecture, until the eighteenth 16 Architecture and building century, patrons were closely involved in the design of buildings that were usually built for their use.

By the nineteenth century the clients of civic and commercial buildings could be committees of people with little knowledge of architecture. In such projects those who commission the building may be far removed from the users, and this raises particular problems for the architect who may also have little or no contact with the users.

The notion of the architect as hero and supreme artist is somewhat diminished when we consider the role of the architect in the context of these realities. The concept of the heroic architect relates partly to the romantic view of architects as artists, partly to the ideology of individualism and partly to the perception that promoting individual architects is good for business. A number of architects have deliberately set out to cultivate the idea of the heroic architect.

The heroic approach to architecture reinforces the idea that it is the individual architect who makes history and so the history of architecture is the history of great architects and great buildings.

New research on an important but neglected building or architect remains unpublished because commercial publishers like safe, recognised subjects and do not want to risk investing in a topic hitherto unknown. There are many exemplary studies and biographies of individual architects that place their subject fully within their contexts.

Among these are: A.

its elements, history, and meaning

Yatsuka and D. The counterpart to the heroic architect is the heroic building, presented as an individual star. The Eiffel Tower is so closely linked in our minds with Paris that we cease to think about it as a structure built for a particular purpose and greeted with outrage initially.

Tower Bridge in London and the Taj Mahal in Agra, Central India, are other examples of cultural monuments that have become isolated from the context in which they developed Figure 2. When we, the authors, visited the Taj Mahal we felt we were so familiar with its image that the reality would have little impact on us.

We were quite unprepared for its striking beauty and tranquil setting. We tend to view these cultural monuments uncritically and yet accept the strength of their symbolism.

Understanding Architecture Through Drawing

The Guggenheim was, however, not the only new building to grace Bilbao. The fact that Bilbao also has an important history with buildings by major architects was for a while over- Architecture and building 19 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 whelmed by the emphasis on the new. The idea of heroic or notable buildings is in one sense obvious, for some buildings do stand out more than others.

Today it is commerce and banking which predominate, and the commercial skyscrapers that dominate the skyline of major cities underline this. Although heroic architecture visually reinforces the power structure in any period, this does not mean that we should concentrate our attention solely on it.

To do so, or to apply a star system to architecture, would result in a very partial view of our subject, comparable in effect to restricting the study of history to that of kings and queens and the dominant hierarchy. One of the most extensive surveys of notable buildings ever undertaken anywhere is the volume Buildings of England series undertaken by Nikolaus Pevsner, which took 45 years to complete. Pevsner and his assistants did not restrict themselves only to obviously notable buildings such as churches and palaces, but they nevertheless had to evolve criteria to enable them to decide which buildings to include and which to omit.

Bridget Cherry and her team had to make similar decisions about what to include and what to omit when resurveying UK buildings for revised editions. Heroic architects have not designed most of the built environment and clearly a view of architecture that ignores where the vast majority of people live, work and play would be extraordinarily limited.

For most of us, where we live is very important, yet unless we live in a palace or in a house designed by a major architect, the heroic approach would not see this as a suitable topic.

It is essential to consider the full range of buildings in any society and also, indeed, to examine those societies which at certain periods produced little architecture.

In ancient Sparta there was little if any monumental architecture and the city had no city wall. Studying any type of building is revealing whether or not an architect designed it.

Every building had to be paid for, whether by a patron, the taxpayer, the builder or a commercial organisation. All buildings stand in a particular relationship to their site and to neighbouring buildings. Their form relates to their use and to the materials of which they are constructed. Their success as buildings relates to their form, construction, materials and physical context, and to how well they accommodate the functions required by those using them.

They proclaim symbolic and metaphorical messages to which we respond on a variety of levels. The scope of the subject is enormous and buildings do not need to be aesthetically pleasing, intellectually stimulating or architect-designed to warrant further study.

The issue of taste Often we are drawn into studying architecture because we have strong feelings about our environment and about what we like and dislike, but our opinions change over time as the example of the Eiffel Tower, Paris, illustrated.

Because we do not like a particular building style, it does not mean that that style was not historically important, or that the architects involved in producing such work were totally mistaken in their aims. Determined to win the commission, Scott reluctantly produced a renaissance-style design, which was built — More recently, in the s, many architects, architectural critics, writers and historians were against historical styles and in particular any form of Victorian architecture.

By the s taste had changed and modernism in 22 Architecture and building Figure 2. If we are to try to understand the National Theatre as a building, it is no use averting our eyes and saying it is horrible. We need to look at the ideas and ideals that inspired Denys Lasdun at the time the building was being designed. We have to look at the way the building performs, that is to say how theatregoers, actors and other staff respond to it.

It is true that interpretations do change and we look at the past quite differently according to our present concerns and outlook.

We need to try to be as objective as possible, while recognising that our ability to be so is affected by our present assumptions and the limits of our historical period and place. Architecture and building 23 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 Architectural terminology If we are to understand buildings and communicate our understanding to others we need to be able to identify particular details and give them their correct name.

Learning architectural terminology is like learning a new language and unfortunately there are no short cuts. There are a number of architectural dictionaries, including illustrated ones that are particularly useful for acquiring the vocabulary necessary to discuss buildings in detail. Owning your own copy is essential in order to be able to look terms up as you come across them. One of the most direct and enjoyable ways of building up this new language is to visit buildings with a good guidebook.

The drawings an architect creates in-house will be together in one area of the set usually towards the very top of the set , the structural engineering drawings will be grouped together in another area, and the electrical, mechanical, landscape drawings, etc. Figure The title sheet of a set of construction drawings Much of the information presented in the architectural drawings simply reiterates what is dis- cussed in other drawings and many times the architect will simply make annotations on a drawing telling the reader to refer to another drawing.

For example, if an architect decides that a column should go in a certain location, he is usually not allowed by law to select a column without the approval of a structural engineer. Not knowing what column type or size the engineer will ultimately decide to use, and not wanting to worry about updating his plans if the engineer decides to change the structural drawings, the architect will often just place a note on his floor plan that reads some- thing like, Column See Structural Drawings.

The architect still needs to show a column on his floor plan and foundation plan, but he is not required to specify any pertinent information about it. Understanding this relationship between the architect and all of the subcontractors that work for him, makes reading a set of architectural drawings a lot easier.

Elevations Elevations provide viewers a better understanding of the scope and complexity of a project than any other drawing type. If this werent true, then you wouldnt see elevations sitting in front of a project sight, as shown in Figure ; you would see other drawing types, such as floor plans or sec- tions.

Although I always recommend reviewing all the important CAD drawings firsthand before quoting a project, it is not difficult to estimate a project based on what is visible in the elevations alone. An elevation is one of the 1 st drawings created for a new project, if not the very 1 st , because with it an architect can show a buildings style, size, and complexity all at once. If an architect or owner does not approve of the 1 st elevation, then a new elevation can be generated without having had wasted time working on floor plans or any other drawings.

A 3D rendering used to advertise a project under construction When working on a building, a contractor can only use elevations as a visual aid. The contrac- tor will never take measurements from an elevation and use that to determine things like window sizes, wall lengths, and door types. Because of this, some architects place a minimal amount of information on elevations and specify the critical dimensions and notes on other drawings such as floor plans and wall sections.

Since architectural drawings are printed in black and white, the only way to delineate differ- ences in all of the lines on paper is by adjusting the line weight, or line thickness.

In all drawings, heavier line weights usually indicate more important features in a project. For example in the left image in Figure , the outline of the standing seam roof is shown in heavier line weight than the thin vertical lines that indicate the standing seams. But in some drawing types, such as an elevation, heavier line weights can also indicate objects that are closer to view.

Since all elevations show orthographic views, such as the left image in Figure rather than perspective views, such as the right image , line weights are the only way to show the viewer that objects are in the foreground or background. For example, notice that in the left image of Figure , there is a column just to the left of the building entrance on the 1 st floor. The lines that delineate the outside of the column are thicker than the lines that delineate the same column just to the right of the door, because the column to the right is farther away from the viewer.

Without this change in line weight for the two columns, there would be no way to no from just this one view that one column was farther away than the other.

Architecture

Regardless of what you perceive in this type of situation, if there is any doubt in your mind whatsoever, a quick check of the floor plan should confirm or refute what you visualize in the eleva- tions. The difficulty in determining depth in an orthographic image left As mentioned, elevations provide the viewer with the best overall look and feel for a project.

But just like all drawings, they have to be scaled down to fit within a sheet of paper, and because of this, the elevations can not show every little detail that goes into a buildings construction. For example, the window elevations shown in Figure only show one line to indicate window mullions.

This is because at the scale that elevations are printed, drawing lines for every bend or corner in a windows profile would only result in one very thick solid line being shown. It is common practice among veteran 3D users to limit the amount of detail placed in a structure to that which is shown in the elevations. In other words, if its an important enough feature for the client to want to see it in 3D, then it is usually important enough to place in the elevations.

In fact, the contract that 3DAS sends out with every job indicates that all details shown in the architectural elevations will be included in the 3D model, and any detail not shown in the elevations will not be included in the 3D model unless expressly requested by the client. This kind of practice leaves little doubt for both the 3D user and client as to what will be included in the 3D model.

Obviously, this way of thinking requires some common sense. For example, if the architectural drawings show a single line to represent the mullions, then you clearly have to do a little research into the section details of the windows to determine what the mullion thickness should be. Likewise, when an architect can not draw all of the lines for every bend and corner of a windows profile, its a good indication that its not necessary to model every bend and corner.

In the left image below, you can just barely distinguish separate lines indicating two major components of the window frame. Seeing these separate lines would be a good indication that the window frame you create in 3D should have at least one bend in its profile, i. A typical elevation of a window left and the more detailed section view right Elevations often provide clues about an objects structure that might at first go unnoticed.

For example, in Figure , it might at first appear that the vertical bars in the railing are completely ver- tical, when in fact they are curved in two different places along their length.

You can not see the curvature in this single orthographic view but a clue to their true shape can be found in the tightly spaced horizontal lines that run up the length of the bars.

These lines indicate some sort of bend or corner and since there can not be that many corners in such a small area, the only logical reason those lines exist is to denote a curve to the shape of the bars. What makes these lines even more important is that another elevation from the side may not even show these curves because they might be hidden from view by other parts of the building.

In fact, the corresponding floor plan prob- ably wont give any indication of these curves either, and therefore, whenever you see these types of clues, it would be wise to look at the railing details or any building or wall section that shows a section cut of these railings.

An elevation that reveals a clue that theres more than meets the eye 1 - 1 6 U n d e r s t a n d i n g A r c h i t e c t u r a l D r aw i n g s An additional point that I would like to make about the railings in Figure is that unless you look at a detail drawing of the railing, theres simply no way to know whether the various parts of the railing have a square or circular cross section.

In reality, it usually shouldnt matter because even if you know the cross section is circular, you shouldnt add the extra polygons if you dont need to, and unless your camera is extremely close to the railings, you would never be able to tell anyway. For railings that are completely straight, i.

But the railings in Figure clearly have a significant amount of curvature, especially the intricate design in the top section. Adding a circular cross section to these railing could easily increase the polygon count 5-fold or more. Simply put, knowing how much detail to build into your objects is a critical part of scene optimization. Floor plans The heart of any set of architectural drawings is the floor plan. From the drafter who labors over its creation, to the engineer who uses it as a template for his or her drawings, to the builder who methodically erects the building to its specifications, no other drawing type receives as much attention and analysis as the typical floor plan.

Floor plans show and delineate important building components of a single floor as seen from a top view and as seen from a particular vertical position between the floor and ceiling.

The primary responsibility of a floor plan is to show precisely where walls, windows, and doors are located, and depending on the type of project and drawing practices of the architectural firm, may include other critical building components such as beams, columns, roof overhangs, and floor and wall finishes or surfaces.

When a builder starts the construction process, the drawing that the builder will be most focused on is the foundation plan, because you cant erect walls, windows, doors, etc, without a foundation in place. On very small projects, the information usually placed on a foundation plan might be incorporated in the floor plan, but in most construction drawings, the foundation plan is a self contained drawing that delineates important structural information.

This critical information including footing sizes, slab thickness, beam and column locations, etc. During the design development stage, an architect will provide the structural engineer with a floor plan, and using that floor plan as a template the engineer can design the structural components of the building.

If the structural engineer decides that walls have to be moved or columns have to be changed, architects will then adjust the floor plan within the construction drawings to accommodate the necessary structural design change.Grouping buildings according to their use, such as military, domestic, recreational, industrial or transport, is another way of subdividing the subject, as is grouping them according to the methods or materials of construction.

Elements which shape architecture are light, space, material, and gravity. Both old and new developments may be inspiring and enjoyable but sometimes there may be a tension between the two.

This book attempts to elucidate that understanding. This is a book that makes no apologies for being aimed at students and at anyone who is interested in the subject of architecture.

Since the annotation refers to 4 Foxtail palms, you should see 3 other identical symbols close by, as the image shows. The great spaces of our cities are like the living rooms of a great house, but so many are spoiled and cluttered unnecessarily.

JONE from Topeka
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